Logistics Glossary

ABC Classification Method: The classification of materials / products in stock according to criteria such as turnover, quantity, value etc.

Acceptance Credit: A form of payment that commits to pay the price of the goods within a certain period of time, and where a policy is an instrument for this payment. In other words, the acceptance loan is a form of payment in which the price of the goods sold is paid to the seller in the term in which he is bound to a policy. This loan is used by additionally accepting the submitted policy along with the importer’s documents or the importer’s bank. Banks act as intermediaries for the parties in making payment with acceptance credit and receive a commission for doing so. A “trade acceptance” occurs when the policy issued by the seller is accepted only by the buyer. If a bank’s acceptance of the policy is foreseeable, the bank will accept the policy or may issue a waiver of the importer’s acceptance. This is referred to as “bank acceptance.” Under this method of payment, the exporter guarantees itself against the importer who wishes to make a deferred purchase by accepting or guaranteeing the policy from the bank.

Acceptance Credit: A form of payment that undertakes the payment of the cost of the goods in a certain term and a policy is a tool for this payment. In other words, the acceptance loan is a form of payment in which the price of the goods sold is paid to the seller in the term when it is linked to a policy. This loan is used by accepting the submitted policy together with the documents by the importer or the importer’s bank in addition. Banks act as intermediaries for the parties in the payment with acceptance credit and they get a commission for this. There is “trade acceptance” if the policy issued by the seller is only accepted by the buyer. In case the acceptance of the policy by a bank is foreseeable, the bank accepts the policy or may issue the acceptance of the importer. This is called “banker’s acceptance”. In this form of payment, the exporter guarantees itself against the importer who wants to make a deferred purchase by accepting or accepting the policy by the bank.

Access Area: The passage used to access the shelves or stacks. It is used for material counting.

Active stacking: The stacking of the loads that are processed and loaded / lifted as needed.

Addendum: A document issued to indicate the changes that occurred during the period when the insurance policy is in effect.

Address: Locations defined in the system with an identification number by determining their physical boundaries within the logistics facility.

Addressing the Storage of the Products (Put Away): The operations of physical transportation of the products in the warehouse after the goods acceptance process is done, and the systematic matching of the ID of the transport container with the address ID.

Addressing: The physical placing of products or transport units (basket, parcel, pallet, etc.) at an address in the facility during the operation carried out in the logistics facility and systematically matching the identification number of the relevant product or transport unit with the identification number of the address where it is placed.

ADR: A standard that includes the rules for the transportation of burnable, flammable and explosive materials by road, and the necessary documents are sought in vehicles and drivers for the transportation of these substances.

Class 1: Explosive Substances

Class 2: Gases

Class 3: Flammable Liquid Substances

Class 4.1: Flammable Solids

Class 4.2: Self-Combustible Substances

Class 4.3: Substances Burning in Contact with Water

Class 5.1: Corrosive (Oxidized) Substances

Class 5.2: Organic Peroxides

Class 6.1: Toxic Substances

Class 6.2: Infectious Substances

Class 7: Radioactive Materials

Class 8: Corrosive (Acidic) Substances

Class 9: Substances with Different Hazards

Agency: An organization or individual serving on behalf of a logistics company in a region other than the central establishment.

Agreement: The text of the agreement reached between the related parties to set the conditions in advance and clearly in the procurement services.

Air Waybill: A bill of lading between the shipper and the carrier in non-negotiable form.

Ata Carnet: According to the international import treaty, it is a document accepted as a declaration and replaces a guarantee that allows the temporary admission of goods without incurring customs duties between the parties.

ATR (ATR Movement Certificate): A document issued by the exporter to benefit from the exemption from customs duties when exporting goods in free circulation according to the Customs Union Agreement signed between Turkey and the European Community.

Automatic Storage System (AS / RS): It is a storage system in which the material is placed in the warehouse and shipped from the storage location is carried out with computer-controlled equipment, and where robots that can move horizontally and vertically for placement and collection purposes in each shelf corridor.

Average Stock: The average stock level held for a product, group of products, or all products in a given period.

Back to back shelf system: A shelf system of which front sides of the shelves are placed in the corridor and the back sides are close to each other, providing direct access to all product types, which can be used manually or with handling equipment, very suitable for pallet use, the most common, economical and large have usage area.

Back-to-back rack spacing: The distance between two racks in the back-to-back racking system, taking into account the overflow of pallets from the racks.

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor): This is the freight item that is determined each month to be unaffected by fluctuations in oil prices.

Barcode: Within the scope of automatic identification technology, it is a combination of lines and spaces of different thickness that can be read with an optical reader device and transferred to the computer environment as numbers, characters or a combination of these.

Belt Conveyor System: These are conveyors with the potential to move products from packaged and boxed materials to cast materials, with a load-bearing surface made of materials such as plastic and rubber.

Bill of Entry: A written declaration document that specifies the characteristics, measurements and qualities of goods entering or leaving the country, passing through or undergoing any other process. It is issued in copies.

Bill of lading (BOL): It is the official document showing the delivery of goods approved by the finance, used when shipping the goods sold from one place to another.

Bill Of Lading: The loading instruction. It includes all the details of the sender and receiver, the place and date of loading, the place where the goods will be delivered, the type of goods, the number, gross weight and delivery method.

Block Train (Unit Train): If there is enough load, it is the allocation of an entire railway train to this load. The load in question can only belong to a company.

Border Gate: Specifies the country borders where export and/or import vehicles enter or leave countries on transit routes.

Buffer Stock: The stock held between work centers in order to balance the production flow.

Bulk Cargo: The type of loading where the load is not in a transport container that can be handled by equipment and the handling requires touching the load.

CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor): Including the fluctuations in the US dollar to the freight.

Cantilever Rack: A shelf with an open front side and carrying arms in the horizontal direction, which is used for stacking especially long goods (profile, pipe, plate, plastic, wood, etc.) side by side or on top of each other.

Capacity: The maximum amount of production (output) that can be obtained under specified conditions, time or other criteria.

Cash Against Documents (CAD): A form of payment that provides for the delivery of the documents to the importer in return for the importer firm’s bank to pay the export price to the exporter’s bank. The importer has the right to withdraw the goods from customs with the payment documents received. This type of payment is also called the payment method against documents.

Cash Against Documents (CAD): It is a form of payment that provides for the delivery of the documents to the importer in return for the importer firm’s bank to pay the export price to the exporter’s bank. The importer has the right to withdraw the goods from customs with the payment documents received. This method of payment is also called the payment method against documents.

Cash Against Goods: A form of payment in which the cost of the exported goods is paid after the goods are received by the importer.

Cash Against Goods: A form of payment in which the cost of the exported goods is paid after the goods are received by the importer.

Cash Payment / Advance Payment / Prepayment / Cash Before Delivery: A form of payment where the importer pays the cost of the goods to the exporter before the actual export.

Cash Payment / Advance Payment / Prepayment / Cash Before Delivery: A form of payment where the importer pays the cost of the goods to the exporter before the actual export.

Certificate of Delivery: A document issued to certify that the goods in question are under the responsibility of the relevant party by signing and stamping when receiving or delivering the goods from the company, supplier or customers providing the service in order to provide storage, transportation and / or value added services .

Certificate of Origin: It is a document that shows the origin of the goods in circulation in international trade, that is, the place where it is produced and therefore to which country it belongs.

CFR (Cost and Freight): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used only for sea and inland water transportation, with cost and freight paid. The seller undertakes all costs and risks and brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, expresses that they deliver them to the ship as customs for export. The risk of damage and loss of the goods passes to the buyer when the goods are put on the ship, while the transfer of the costs to the buyer occurs at the destination port.

CFR (Cost and Freight): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used only for sea and inland water transportation, with cost and freight paid. The seller undertakes all costs and risks and brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, expresses that they deliver them to the ship as customs for export. The risk of damage and loss of the goods passes to the buyer when the goods are put on the ship, while the transfer of the costs to the buyer occurs at the destination port.

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight): A form of delivery in international trade, used only for sea and inland water transport, with cost, insurance and freight paid. The seller undertakes all costs and risks and brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, expresses that they deliver them to the ship as customs for export. In addition, the seller makes an insurance contract on behalf of the buyer at the minimum coverage rate against the risk of loss and damage during the transportation of the goods. The risk of damage and loss of the goods passes to the buyer when the goods are put on the ship, while the transfer of the costs to the buyer occurs at the destination port and the risk passes to the buyer.

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight): A form of delivery in international trade, used only for sea and inland water transport, with cost, insurance and freight paid. The seller undertakes all costs and risks and brings the goods to the port where they will be loaded, expresses that they deliver them to the ship as customs for export. In addition, the seller makes an insurance contract on behalf of the buyer at the minimum coverage rate against the risk of loss and damage during the transportation of the goods. The risk of damage and loss of the goods passes to the buyer when the goods are put on the ship, while the transfer of the costs to the buyer occurs at the destination port and the risk passes to the buyer.

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in all forms of transportation, with cost, insurance and freight paid. It states that the goods of the seller will be delivered to a carrier or other person of his choice (if such a place has been agreed by the parties) as customs cleared for export, and that the seller has to pay transportation costs to bring the goods to the specified destination. By paying the insurance premium, the seller insures an insurance at the minimum coverage rate suitable for the type of goods loaded. The seller is deemed to have fulfilled the “delivery obligation” when the goods are delivered to the carrier, not when the goods arrive at their destination.

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in all forms of transportation, with cost, insurance and freight paid. It states that the goods of the seller will be delivered to a carrier or other person of his choice (if such a place has been agreed by the parties) as customs cleared for export, and that the seller has to pay transportation costs to bring the goods to the specified destination. By paying the insurance premium, the seller insures an insurance at the minimum coverage rate suitable for the type of goods loaded. The seller is deemed to have fulfilled the “delivery obligation” when the goods are delivered to the carrier, not when the goods arrive at their destination.

Cladded Warehouse: The type of building where the shelf system is used as the main carrier system of the warehouse building, as well as product storage. After the rack system is installed, facade and roof panels are coated on it, and mechanical electrical systems are also installed as integrated into the rack system. Therefore, compared to conventional warehouse shelves, cladding warehouse shelves cannot be removed and moved flexibly without affecting the building, and their location cannot be changed.

CMR Agreement: This is a road transport document used by countries that accept the provisions of the international CMR agreement. It shows that the transport is carried out according to the CMR regulations. It is issued by the consignor or logistics company on behalf of the consignee.

CMR Road Transport Document (CMR International Consignment Note): It is issued by the shipping company on behalf of the buyer. It is a legal proof that the goods have been received in good condition to be transported under the specified conditions and that the contract of carriage has been concluded.

Code: The numerical or alphanumeric representation of text in order to classify and classify commonly used information.

Combined Transport: A transport system in which the road is used at the beginning and end stages of the transport and the long-distance transport is carried out by iron, river, canal or sea.

Commodity: The name given to all commodities and products subject to trade.

Complete: The allocation of a transport vehicle or container to a shipper.

Consignment Export – Consignations: A form of export in the form of sending goods to foreign buyers, brokers, exporters’ branches abroad for final sales to be made later. The relevant persons or organizations that receive the goods sent to be sold sell the goods at their fair value, commission, etc. their expenses are deducted from the sales income and they send the remaining amount to the exporter in foreign currency through the authorized bank.

Consignment Export – Consignations: It is a form of export in the form of sending goods to foreign buyers, brokers, exporters’ branches abroad for final sales to be made later. The relevant persons or organizations that receive the goods sent for sale sell the goods at their fair value. Commission and similar expenses are deducted from the sales income and the remaining amount is sent to the exporter in foreign currency through the authorized bank.

Consignment Stock: Products that are paid when used, not when received.

Consolidation: The saving of scale in transportation by creating large loading lots from small quantity loads.

Container: These are standard metal freight crates, which are resistant to all kinds of atmospheric conditions, are used especially in combined transport connected to sea transport, can be easily handled and can be stacked on top of each other.

Continuous Improvement: A continuous cycle of activities based on planning, implementing, controlling and taking measures in order to increase performance.

Continuous Replenishment: The coordination of the flow of goods and information in the supply chain to ensure continuous product flow and less product retention in retailer stocks.

Contract Logistics: Outsourcing and realizing logistics operations with the logistics service provider company depending on the contract with the customers.

Contract warehouse: The warehouse where warehouse activities are performed on behalf of the customer or customers based on a contract.

Conveyor: A closed-circuit continuous transfer mechanism that is used to transport loads from the air or from the ground. It is a continuous transport vehicle that is used for carrying various loads and materials.

Coorporation: Incentivize, encourage and drive all parties in the supply chain to achieve better chain performance.

Corridor: A passageway in a stockpile.

Counter-trade: These are the transactions where two groups of goods, which are considered to be of equal value, are exchanged directly and simultaneously, with a single contract that does not include financial payments or fund transfers. Clearing agreements usually cover one-off transactions, not long-term and regular transactions with the same customer.

Counter-trade: These are transactions in which two sets of goods considered to be of equal value are exchanged directly and simultaneously under a single contract without financial payments or transfers of funds. Clearing agreements usually cover one-off transactions, not long-term and regular transactions with the same customer.

CPT (Carriage Paid To): A form of delivery in international trade used in all types of transportation, where costs and freight are paid. It is used especially in means of transport with multiple vehicles. It states that the seller’s goods are delivered to a carrier or other person of his choice (if such a place is agreed by the parties), cleared for export, and that the seller must pay the transportation costs for the goods to be delivered to the specified destination. From the moment of delivery of the goods to the first carrier, as a rule, all risks and costs, except for freight associated with the goods, are transferred to the buyer.

CPT (Carriage Paid To): A form of delivery in international trade used in all types of transportation, where costs and freight are paid. It is used especially in means of transport with multiple vehicles. It states that the seller’s goods are delivered to a carrier or other person of his choice (if such a place is agreed by the parties), cleared for export, and that the seller must pay the transportation costs for the goods to be delivered to the specified destination. From the moment of delivery of the goods to the first carrier, as a rule, all risks and costs, except for freight associated with the goods, are transferred to the buyer.

Crane: A vehicle that is used to lift heavy loads and carry them to a place.

Cross Docking: This is the shipment of products supplied by the supplier without being in stock and without spoiling the contents based on the transport container, classifying them according to the needs of customers.

Customer Relationship Management: The provision of more effective and efficient services to customers through versatile and cross-analysis of customer characteristics and sales and marketing activities.

Customer: The institution or person to whom the product and services are sold.

Customs Permit: A customs document that all legal requirements are met and the vehicle can depart.

Customs Registration: This is the approval of the customs declaration prepared by the exporter or importer company or its customs agent and the transmission of the goods in question to the customs permit so that they can be imported.

Customs Union: An agreement between one or more countries to facilitate import transactions, eliminate or reduce tariffs, and ensure that the same customs tariff applies in all countries.

Cycle Count: The process of counting and recording the stock in an order in certain periods in order to ensure stock accuracy.

Damage: Any damage that causes cracking, crazing, breaking, deterioration, deformation, wetting and similar loss of value during transportation, storage and handling of materials.

DAP (Delivered At Place): A form of delivery in international trade that is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and domestic transportation paid. It means that the seller delivers the goods at the designated destination without discharge from the incoming transportation vehicle, leaving it to the buyer’s disposal. The seller bears all damages and costs related to the delivery of the goods to the designated destination. The seller bears all costs up to the destination, but the customs clearance and costs in the recipient country belong to the buyer.

DAP (Delivered At Place): A form of delivery in international trade that is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and domestic transportation paid. It means that the seller delivers the goods at the designated destination without discharge from the incoming transportation vehicle, leaving it to the buyer’s disposal. The seller bears all damages and costs related to the delivery of the goods to the designated destination. The seller bears all costs up to the destination, but the customs clearance and costs in the recipient country belong to the buyer.

DAT (Delivered At Terminal): A form of delivery in international trade that is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and domestic transportation paid. It means that the goods are delivered by the seller leaving the goods unloaded from the incoming transport vehicle at the designated destination or at the terminal at the port to the disposal of the buyer. DAT is the release of the goods at the terminal point designated by the buyer and seller at the buyer’s disposal, with unloading costs paid by the seller.

DAT (Delivered At Terminal): A form of delivery in international trade that is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and domestic transportation paid. It means that the goods are delivered by the seller leaving the goods unloaded from the incoming transport vehicle at the designated destination or at the terminal at the port to the disposal of the buyer. DAT is the release of the goods at the terminal point designated by the buyer and seller at the buyer’s disposal, with unloading costs paid by the seller.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and internal transportation paid. The delivery obligation of the seller ends when the goods are kept ready for order at the place determined in the country of import. The seller has to bear the risks and expenses, including taxes, duties and other charges, necessary for the goods to be transported to that point and passed through import customs.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in all forms of transportation, including a wide variety of transportation, with cost, insurance, freight and internal transportation paid. The delivery obligation of the seller ends when the goods are kept ready for order at the place determined in the country of import. The seller has to bear the risks and expenses, including taxes, duties and other charges, necessary for the goods to be transported to that point and passed through import customs.

Dead Stock: Stock that has not been demanded or consumed within a certain period of time.

Declared Amount: The value of the goods declared by the sender.

Delivery Note: The official document used to officially document every movement of assets in all kinds of tangible businesses such as commercial goods, raw materials, scrap, fixed assets.

Delivery Order: An order or instruction prepared to ensure that the goods written in the bill of lading can be withdrawn partially. Ordino is also an instruction to clear the goods from customs against the bill of lading.

Delivery receipt report: A document created to confirm that the goods in question are under the responsibility of the party concerned by signing and stamping it while the goods are received or delivered by companies, suppliers or customers providing warehousing, transportation and / or value-added services.

Delivery Time: The date and / or time that a good is delivered to the customer.

Delivery Time: The time between placing the purchase order or production order of a product / service and the realization of the order delivery or product production.

Delivery: The process of receiving the goods from the authorized personnel who delivered the material by the company representative.

Demand Forecasting: The use of various forecasting approaches in accordance with certain conditions in order to determine the quantitative and / or qualitative values of the demand for products and services.

Demand Planning: The determination of the demand of a product or service for a projected period (such as 12 months, 6 months, 3 months, 1 month) on the basis of product family, product or location by taking into account both the past sales data and the factors affecting the future with a scenario approach. .

Demand: The requirement that arises for a certain amount of a given material.

Demurrage: It means that the ship exceeds the loading and unloading time given to it or the cargo waiting in the container is not withdrawn from customs before the given time.

Desi: The value obtained by multiplying the three measurements (width, length, height) of loads such as packages, crates, parcels in centimeters and dividing by 3,000 to be used in the freight transportation fee calculation.

Direct (Direct) Shipping: The sending of products to the customer without a storage process.

Distributed inventory: Storage of the same material inventory in different locations.

Distribution Center: Logistics facilities where the storage, value-added transactions, handling, packaging and shipping of the products originating from the supplier or suppliers are carried out within the period until distribution.

Distribution Channel: These are the entire connection points of this flow in the flow of goods / services produced and / or offered by the company from the company to the end user.

Distribution network: In this system, items such as warehouse, route, point of sale are defined in the process from shipping points to delivery points.

Distribution: This is the entire procedures carried out for the shipment and delivery (shipping) of products to the specified locations according to the specified time, quantity and similar conditions.

Document: Each of the invoice, purchase order and similar forms.

Dozvola: The transit pass document of trucks used between countries. Countries pay mutually the annual Dozvola Certificate fee. Trucks that receive this certificate can make transit freight transportation from countries.

Electric Pallet Truck (Jet): A manually operated and electric (battery) powered equipment that is used to carry pallet loads practically in a horizontal direction. Its ability to transport / stack pallets vertically is very limited.

Electric Stacker: The electrical equipment used to stack palletized loads vertically. The equipment does not have a cabin for the operator, the operator uses the equipment on foot. It is a smaller and more economical product compared to conventional stacking equipment such as Reachtruck, but its maximum height is lower.

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce): The purchase of real or virtual products on certain systems on the internet for money.

Electronic Product Code: The code containing the code version, manufacturer / producer information, product type and serial number of a product in the supply chain for global, instant and automatic identification and tracking.

Emergency Plan: A plan that shows the measures to be taken against unexpected developments that may occur in the future.

Emergency Stock: The amount of stock that has to be kept at all times in case of an unplanned emergency.

ETA (estimated time of arrival): This is the estimated date of arrival.

Euro pallet (EUR – pallet): European countries gradually standardized pallets, determined their characteristics such as size, quality, type of material, moisture content, nails used, and defined the pallets meeting these standards as Euro pallets. The standard number of Euro Pallet is UIC 435-2V. Its measurements are 80 cm x 120 cm.

Ex declaration: An export declaration.

Ex Works: A form of delivery in international trade that expresses only the cost of the goods and allows the goods to be delivered to the buyer at the seller’s own warehouse or store. All costs, risks and other liabilities associated with the goods are borne by the buyer after delivery of the goods in the company. The seller is not obliged to load the goods on a transport vehicle and does not have to perform these customs clearance procedures if the goods are required for export.

Ex Works: A form of delivery in international trade that expresses only the cost of the goods and allows the goods to be delivered to the buyer at the seller’s own warehouse or store. All costs, risks and other liabilities associated with the goods are borne by the buyer after delivery of the goods in the company. The seller is not obliged to load the goods on a transport vehicle and does not have to perform these customs clearance procedures if the goods are required for export.

Export: The trade that occurs by sending the goods to another country from the country of residence.

Extranet: A network created so that different organizations (customers, suppliers, government agencies, etc.) can use the same software and protocols over the Internet.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in the form of sea and inland water transportation, where the cost of goods and inland transportation to the port has been paid. It means that the seller delivers the goods at the designated loading port by leaving them in line (at the pier) of the ship selected by the buyer as customs cleared for export. Risks such as loss or damage of the goods from the delivery belong to the buyer. From this moment on, all costs and freight related to the goods are borne by the buyer.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship): A form of delivery in international trade, which is used in the form of sea and inland water transportation, where the cost of goods and inland transportation to the port has been paid. It means that the seller delivers the goods at the designated loading port by leaving them in line (at the pier) of the ship selected by the buyer as customs cleared for export. Risks such as loss or damage of the goods from the delivery belong to the buyer. From this moment on, all costs and freight related to the goods are borne by the buyer.

FCA Free Carrier:  It means that the seller’s obligation ends when the goods are delivered to the carrier designated by the buyer at the place specified by the buyer as customs clearance for export. If the buyer has appointed someone who is not the carrier himself to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled the delivery obligation by leaving the goods to this person.

FCA Free Carrier:  It means that the seller’s obligation ends when the goods are delivered to the carrier designated by the buyer at the place specified by the buyer as customs clearance for export. If the buyer has appointed someone who is not the carrier himself to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled the delivery obligation by leaving the goods to this person.

Feeder Service: The event of the receipt or delivery of goods from large marine vessels to small marine vessels or barges or when this event occurs. It is often not possible to provide direct service from large ships.

FIFO (First in First Out): Generally used in storage and costing, it is the rule that predicts that the first incoming material for storage will come out first.

Fictive: The type of warehouse where the private firm only stores its own bonded goods.

Fixed Costs: These are costs that remain fixed in the short term and are not affected by the amount of work done.

Fixed Price: The price that is not changed in any way.

Fixed Storage Policy: A policy of storing each product in a special area reserved for it.

Fleet Management: The work of managing and running the self-owned vehicles, equipment, garage and infrastructure systems in logistic companies in harmony is called fleet management. It covers all the works such as where and when the vehicles will be, their maintenance, which accommodation places they will stay, the equipment to be found in the vehicle, the driver’s status.

Flexi Conveyor: Each section is 1 meter long, and thanks to its scissor structure, it is a conveyor model that can adapt to different distances by lengthening and shortening.

Flexibility: The ability to adapt to changes in consumer demands.

FOB (Free On Board): A form of international delivery. The seller loads the goods on the ship provided by the buyer at the specified date and place. Any damages, losses and expenses that may occur after the goods have passed to the rail (deck) of the ship are the responsibility of the buyer. The seller prepares all necessary documents for export and delivers the goods after completing the customs procedures.

FOB (Free On Board): A form of international delivery. The seller loads the goods on the ship provided by the buyer at the specified date and place. Any damages, losses and expenses that may occur after the goods have passed to the rail (deck) of the ship are the responsibility of the buyer. The seller prepares all necessary documents for export and delivers the goods after completing the customs procedures.

Force Majeure: The provision in the contracts that the parties cannot be held responsible for unforeseen situations (earthquake, flood, war, etc.) outside their control.

Forklift: Fork lift truck is a fork lift truck used for loading, discharge, transporting, placing, stacking and similar handling operations in open and closed areas.

Fourth Party Logistics (4PL): Companies that bring together the resources, capabilities and technology of their own organization with third-party logistics (3PL) companies and undertake the design and management of the entire chain to provide comprehensive supply chain solutions to its customers. 4PL companies must have the expertise and ability to add value along the entire supply chain.

Free Zone: Free zones are regions that are within the country’s political borders but outside the customs border in terms of foreign trade, taxes, and customs laws. Free zones receive broader exemptions and incentives for industrial and commercial activities than those provided for in the country.

Freight: A fee paid for the transportation service.

FTL (Full Truck Load): The load that fully fills the carrying capacity of a trailer (volume, weight).

Gauge: These are the measurements that determine the length, width and height of the vehicles in order to ensure their safe navigation on the road with or without load.

Goods Receiving Area: The area where the acceptance process of the material incoming to the warehouse is carried out.

GPRS: A communication technology that allows data to be transmitted to users via the GSM network.

Grouping: This is the assignment of a transport vehicle or container to more than one shipper.

Handling: A general expression used in logistics facilities for all processes such as changing the location of the products, disrupting and rebuilding the package structure, changing the container measurements, checking, labeling, and stretching.

Hazardous Substance: A material that should be given special attention during transportation and storage as it has a risk of damaging health, safety and other materials in its environment.

Hazardous Substance: A substance that may pose a risk in terms of health, safety and damage during storage and transportation.

Hidden Damage: It is the situation when it is discovered that the products in a container that appears to be undamaged are later damaged.

IATA (International Air Transport Association): The organization that controls the descriptions and authorizations of passenger and cargo transportation in international air transport.

IMCO Charge: The additional fee requested by the shipowner for the transportation of dangerous goods.

IMO Document: The document used to transport flammable, explosive and chemical substances.

Import (Import): The trade that occurs by bringing the goods from another country to the country of residence.

Inspection: The inspection of the material at the storage or Customs points under the supervision of internal or external officials (third parties) by taking samples when necessary.

Insurance: A bilateral written contract made with the company dealing with this business in return for a premium paid in advance in order to cover the damages that may arise as a result of the realization of possible risks.

Interim House Airway Bill (HAWB): The loading document issued by agencies for air cargo. The interim waybill also contains shipping instructions for the destination agency, description of the goods and applicable transportation charges.

Intermodal Transportation: Intermodal transportation is the transportation of the goods to the final destination using more than one transportation model (Ro-Ro, road, sea, railway) without any physical operation on the goods and without opening the container / trailer.

International Delivery Methods (Incoterms): A program implemented by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in order to bring the terms used in international trade to a standard. There are a total of 11 delivery methods.

International Transport: Any type of transport carried out directly or in transit from one country to another by road, sea, rail and / or air.

Intranet: The connection of computer networks to enable data exchange between company units.

Inventory accuracy at address: This is the accurate match of the products physically located at an address within the logistics facility with the products registered at the corresponding address in the system.

Inventory: Physical and / or financial list of all fixtures and stocks in the business.

Invoice: The document prepared by the seller, containing information about the product, quantity, quality, sales type, weight, address, date and similar information.

Jettison: Dumping materials from the ship when the ship is in danger.

Joint Rate: The price applied from the first transportation point to the other. These transportation systems are the only tariffs that have been agreed and approved between the lines.

Just In Time Delivery System: The system for the shipping and delivery of the material, in the required time and amount, from the required place to the required place under desired conditions.

K1: The authorization document that should be obtained from the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications for real or legal persons who will transport goods between cities by road with one or more self-owned vehicles.

Kabotaj: Is when a country delivers the authority to transport within its own country in maritime trade only to carriers carrying its own flag. It is also used as the right of commercial vehicle drivers to work in other countries in road transport.

Kanban: The information, document, signal, electronic message that provides the material required in just-in-time production / supply systems, when and in the amount needed.

Kingpin: Big pin that connects the tractor with the semi-trailer.

Knocked Down (KD): It is the separation of the load to be reassembled to make an economical loading.

Küşat (Opening): A word of Persian origin and means opening. It is the right of owners to inspect, take samples and weigh their belongings before declaration in order to be able to prepare their declarations.

L2 Document (L2 Document): According to the Road Transport Law, it is a type of authorization certificate that companies engaged in international logistics operations must have. The validity period of the document is 5 years, unless the violations specified by the provisions of the law are committed.

Land Transportation: A transportation model that includes the transportation of the goods by using the road route from the origin to the destination.

Laydays and Cancelling Clause – LayCan: The interval formed by the days when the vessel can stay at the named port for loading or discharge.

LIFO (Last In First Out): The principle that predicts that the last incoming material will come out first.

Load note: A document in the form of a receipt that is used for train transportation. It does not have the characteristic of valuable documents.

Load: Transported goods, products or wares.

Loading Area: The pallet, platform and similar area where the loads are placed.

Loading: The process of safely loading the materials into a train, plane, truck and similar vehicle for shipment.

Logistics Management: The stage of the supply chain process that includes the effective and efficient planning, implementation and control of the forward and backward flows and storage of goods, services and related information between the production point and consumption points in order to meet customer requirements.

Logistics: The physical flow consisting of transportation, storage, packaging and handling, and service flow consisting of customs clearance, insurance, surveillance, stock management and order management.

Low-bed: A semi-trailer that allows the transportation of loads that are different from the length, height, width and tonnage that normal trucks or trucks can carry, outside of the standards according to international and domestic road transport regulations such as heavy construction equipment or special project loads.

Main route: This is the most convenient and frequently used route between the departure and destination points.

Manifest: A document showing the list of details prepared by the carrier and its agency. It is the summary details of the total cargo in the vehicle. It is generally used for customs purposes.

Master Airway Bill (MAWB): Used for shipments made by air from the true consignor to the true consignee.

Material Management: The management of all materials within a company, including coding, requirement planning, inventory control, procurement, storage and similar activities.

Material Request: The request made to receive the goods from the warehouse and to start the purchasing process if it is not in the warehouse.

Maut: It is the highway use tax collected from vehicles over 12 tons in Germany.

Mezzanine Type (Platform – Walkway) Shelf System: It is a shelf system that is used to store small and multi-article products such as spare parts, ready-made clothing, accessories, cosmetics, provides access to each product without using equipment, and enables efficient use of the warehouse volume vertically. It allows the personnel to walk on the platforms within the shelf and thus allows a high warehouse to be used as an intermediate floor.

Mixed Transportation: The use of at least two different transportation systems together within the same shipment.

Mobile ramp: The equipment that allows the handling equipment to pass between the warehouse and the vehicle body. With its movable structure, it eliminates the height difference between the vehicle bodies of different heights and the warehouse floor, and acts as a bridge in between.

Moving Rack: This is a system in which the rack blocks can move horizontally by motor drive. With this mobility, fewer corridors can be planned and more intensive storage can be made. It is generally used in operations (such as archive storage) with relatively slow input and output speeds.

Narrow Aisle Stacking Equipment: The equipment used in the Narrow Aisle Storage System to move the corridors with guides such as rail, laser light, magnetic line, to place and retrieve pallets on the shelf. Models where the operator can move vertically with the product are called “man-up”, and models where the cabin stays at the floor shelf floor level are called “man-down”. “Man-up” models can be used for order picking from high shelves as well as pallet handling.

Narrow Aisle Storage System: Rack systems are used in warehouses in order to use the warehouse volume more efficiently. The spaces between the shelf systems are called corridors. When standard handling equipment (forklift, reach truck, etc.) is used, these corridors should have a width of around 3 meters. It is a storage system in which the width of these corridors is narrowed down to 2 meters with special handling equipment in order to use the warehouse volume horizontally.

Opentop Container: A container that does not fit into the standard container or cannot be loaded from the container door with a forklift or similar equipment.

Optimization: It is a concept that has parallels with resource planning. It aims to increase the measurable values of the institution such as the use of these resources with maximum capacity, efficiency and profitability with the actions to be taken and the plans to be implemented within the existing resources, while keeping these criteria at the lowest level within a structure measured by performance criteria such as penalty, delay and loss.

Order Confirmation Number: The number that indicates the order of a product that is finalized to be delivered on a certain date. This number is used to receive material and to track this purchase during the account payable.

Order Management: The process of meeting demands or orders, pricing, keeping records, controlling stocks, allocating stocks or reporting production / purchasing requirements to the relevant places, order tracking, tracking delivery and collection.

Order Picker: The stacking equipment that allows the operator to go up and collect orders.

Order Picking Vehicle (Picker): A material handling equipment designed to manually collect orders with less than the pallet load on the shelves, which allows the operator to rise while picking order in horizontal and vertical directions, in other words, allows the operator to move on the machine.

Order Picking: The process in which the customer notifies the firm by giving the amount and time for the products or services stored and preparing for shipment by the warehouse personnel.

Outdoor Area Management (Yard Management): Ensuring and following all vehicles and persons entering the boundaries of the logistics facility to act in accordance with the defined processes and rules (such as traffic flow, use of parking areas, protection of the security chain).

Package: A container made of metal, plastic, cardboard and similar materials that protects the products from external influences and facilitates the marketing, transportation, storage and distribution processes by keeping them together.

Packaging: All of the protective tools used to ensure safe transportation of a product in the distribution chain extending from the manufacturer to the consumer.

Packaging: Protects the products from external influences, facilitates the advertising and marketing processes, provides visual ergonomics and ergonomics of use and contains information about the product inside metal, plastic, glass and so on. It is a container of materials.

Packing List: This is the parcel and packing list. It is a detailed list of parts, pieces, weights, sizes and numbers of the items in the shipment, as well as the consignee information and address.

Packing slip: Official document indicating the name of the cargo in the vehicle, its quantity, freight charges and invoice number. It is a document that must be arranged and kept with the goods during the transfer of commercial goods from one place to another, in order to control the goods for tax purposes during transportation.

Pallet truck: A material handling equipment that is used for order picking, vehicle loading and unloading in the warehouse and suitable for working in low positions.

Palletizing: The stacking of the product in pallets to be transported and stored.

Panel van: While the van is a light commercial vehicle (semi-closed open box) similar to a minibus with a closed body of 3 – 5 meters, which is designed to carry freight, it is transported in the open, in this model, cargo is carried in a hollow section like a closed warehouse.

Parcel (Box): A package of various sizes containing various items.

Parcel Label: The label on the outer surface of the parcels used in transportation, showing the destination and / or parcel content information.

Partial Shipments: The method of transporting the cargo of different customers on the same route with the same truck.

Payment under a letter of credit (L / C): A conditional commitment that a bank makes a payment to a specific seller in return for the submission of documents related to the goods or services with details provided by the buyer at the request of the buyer.

Payment Under Letter Of Credit – L/C: A conditional commitment by a bank, based on a buyer’s request, to make a payment to a specified seller in return for submission of documents relating to the goods or services, detailed by the buyer.

Physical Count:  The process of counting and recording all inventory in the warehouse or facility by temporarily suspending the entry and exit processes, usually once or twice a year.

Physical Distribution: The physical transportation, storage, stock control, packaging, information communication and ordering of the produced goods to the consumers.

Pick by Light: An electronic system that shows the personnel from which address and how many products will be collected through the LED screen during the product collection process. It ensures that the result of the picking process is reported to the warehouse management system via the buttons on it.

Picking Area: A predetermined place for each piece to be used in picking, placing and replenishment processes.

Planning: It is the departure of the loads by making loading plans based on the load requests from our customers and / or agencies, the source we have and again according to the customer demands.

Policy: It is a written contract that shows that the insurance contract has been made and the conditions of the contract (the rights and obligations of both parties).

Portable Shelf: The shelf that can be carried empty or full.

Process Improvement: The development work to be done to increase quality, reduce costs, and eliminate activities that do not create added value.

Procurement: All of the research, selection, planning, stock control, purchasing, shipping, delivery, evaluation and similar activities required for the provision of machinery, tools, devices, raw materials, materials, parts, semi-products, products and services from appropriate suppliers.

Product Collection: The process of collecting the products in the warehouse from their addresses according to customer demands.

Product Stock: The amount of each product in the warehouse.

Production: Creation of useful products and / or services for users by using materials, labor, energy, machinery and similar production resources.

Proforma: It is a pre-invoice issued by the seller on behalf of the buyer and showing all the details regarding the agreement made.

Progressive Stock: Stock at a specific stage in the supply chain to meet customer requirements.

Promissible Stock: Planned stock quantities that show when future sales orders can be fulfilled.

Promotion: Innovations or advantages offered to increase sales.

Provisional Acceptance: The conversion of raw materials, semi-products or products into semi-products / products by bringing them from abroad, adding / not adding different materials within the country or with / without value-added transactions (labor, etc.).

Purchase: The transfer of ownership of the goods or services from the seller to the buyer, with the desired quality, time and quantity, at an affordable price, with an appropriate delivery and payment plan, and with additional conditions if deemed necessary.

Put to Light: An electronic system that shows the personnel how many products will be placed at which address through the LED screen during the product separation process. It ensures that the result of the decomposition process is notified to the warehouse management system via the buttons on it.

Quality Control: The determination of the degree to which a product or service meets the prescribed quality conditions.

Quarantine Stock: Stock that is kept separate from intact products due to reasons such as incorrect documentation, broken goods, recall of defective products.

R2 Document (R2 Document): In accordance with the Road Transport Law, it is a type of authorization certificate that must be owned by companies that organize international transportation works. The validity period of the document is 5 years, unless the violations specified by the provisions of the law are committed.

Rail Corridor: The corridor with guide rails that allow the narrow aisle stackers to move in a certain direction.

Ramp: The area that ensures that the frame of the transport vehicle and the loading zone are at the same height level, thus facilitating the unloading and loading of the material.

Raw material: These are materials that are used extensively in the production processes to obtain the final product.

Reach-Truck: An  electric stacking equipment that can provide easy, convenient, fast and safe movement in wide corridors (approximately 3 meters wide), in warehouses with side loading and stacking at 10 – 13 meters high levels to meet the storage needs.

Receiver: The party that receives the product.

Receiving Goods: The process of accepting the material incoming to the warehouse. The process includes the unloading of the cargo to the goods acceptance area, the comparison of the recorded information with the physical information, the storage of the goods and the record keeping.

Record: These are the documents signed by the relevant persons to determine a specific event or situation (goods acceptance report, counting report, missing / excess report, etc.).

Refrigerated Transportation: It means the transportation of fresh and frozen food up to -26 degrees.

Replenishment: The in-warehouse transfer process performed to ensure availability of the material in different packaging forms and / or storage locations during the storage process.

Reserved Areas: Special areas such as a predetermined cross-docking area to be used for placement, collection or other purposes.

Reserved Stock: The reserved stock for the required amount within the framework of a job or order opened for a specific product.

Resource Planning:  Optimization work carried out periodically in order to use all self-owned and / or subcontracted resources efficiently and to benefit the organization. As a result of the needs and demands arising from the resource planning results, processes such as purchasing can also be triggered.

Return Product Document: The form showing that the returned product is the original product of the company and stating the reason for the return.

Return to Country of Origin: The return of the imported material to the country of origin when it is not suitable for its qualifications.

Returns Management: Management of operations such as transportation, storage, recovery, and disposal related to the products returned from the customer to the supplier.

Returns: The activities of returning the products from the buyer to the starting point for reasons such as damage, rejection, recovery of packaging materials, expiration of the usage period, obsolescence, repair after product delivery.

Revenue Management: Increasing incomes with efficient practices.

RF Hand Terminal (Radio Frequency): Easy to use Handheld computer that allows to collect information by performing manual operations with barcode, data matrix scanning or keys, to deliver this collected information to the desired system database without loss, error-free online with radio frequency, and also to display the information for directing personnel from the system database.

RF ID: An automatic identification system consisting of a microchip with an antenna around it and a reader, integrated with a software-hardware system, where the data communication between the tag and the reader is provided by radio waves.

Roller Conveyor: The equipment that moves the product or transport container (pallet, basket, etc.) on them by rotating the placed roller molds with the motor.

Route: The path followed by people, goods, vehicles, services or information between starting and ending points and determined in advance.

Routing: The determination of the order and route to be made from the starting point of the transportation to the points to be delivered.

Safe Zone: The place where special materials are stored.

Safety stock: The amount of stock kept in order not to fall out of stock as a result of unexpected situations in the supply period and consumption (sales) speed.

Salvage: The monetary value appraised by the insurance expert for the damaged products.

Seal: A kind of locking system that is installed after the vehicle is cleared and shows that it is not opened without permission until delivery.

Seasonal Stock: The stock held before a season begins to meet the consumption that will occur during the season.

Sequential Stacking: The stacking of loads on the floor in a plan without the use of racks.

Shelf: A storage device made of metal, wood or plastic material, which is constantly fixed or whose measurements can be adjusted when necessary, to maintain order in the warehouses, to put products on it, to use the height and to protect the goods.

Shipper: The party requesting (company) the shipment of the product.

Shipping: The process of classifying the requests (orders) according to certain criteria (dispatch date, place, loading vehicle, route, quantity, etc.) and removing them from the warehouse in order to deliver them to the requested places with the relevant official documents.

Simultaneous Entry and Order Preparation (Flow Thru): Similar to the Cross Loading process, it is the process of shipping the products supplied from the supplier without taking them into stock, by sorting the products according to the orders of the customers. Unlike the Cross Loading process, there may be a need to change the content of the transport container, so the products in the transport container are handled one by one and subjected to both the entry and order preparation process simultaneously. In cases where the amount received from the relevant product is more than the order amount, the remaining amount (called residue) is taken into the stock only by subjecting the goods acceptance process. Thus, it is ensured that the incoming product is partially or completely matched with orders at the entry stage and classified, and only those that do not match are taken into stocks, thus saving in resource use by reducing operational processes.

Sliding Rack: In order to realize the FIFO principle for boxes, pallets and similar packages in order to use high speed and better volume, it is the shelf where the other packages slide on inclined rollers and come to the unloading position.

Sousplan: The situation where the customs clearance of the material is performed on the vehicle carrying out the transportation, which is generally used in transportation by land and sea.

Spanzet (Ratchet Strap): The general name of polyester bands that are used to stabilize the load by stretching with a tension mechanism known as “purse-sein” and fixed on the surface where the load will be carried by passing over the load.

Spot Vehicle: The general name of free-running vehicles with a one-time transportation agreement.

Stack: It is a stack load created from different loads according to certain criteria.

Stacking: It is the stacking of materials on top of each other in order to use the volume vertically.

Standard Pallet Rack: A classic shelf designed for standard pallets in Euro and ISO and similar norms.

Standard Product Code: The code given by the “Uniform Product Code” Council (UPCC), with the first five characters identifying the manufacturer and the other 5 characters identifying the product.

Stock Adjustment: It is the systematic stock increase or decrease operations performed in order to correct the inventory errors on the system.

Stock Control: It is the determination of orders or requirements by monitoring the stocks continuously or periodically, in a way that does not cause stock surplus or stock deficiency and in accordance with the established rules.

Stock Turnover Rate: The ratio of the cost or the amount of the goods sold for a certain activity period to the average stock value or quantity.

Stock Type (Account): Sellable stock, damaged stock, stock of products to be labeled, problematic products stock, returned items stock to be repackaged, returned items stock to be inspected, items awaiting destruction, quality control stock, etc. It is used for systematic separation of stocks with different characteristics.

Stock: The material that is generally kept in warehouses against the needs that will occur or may occur in the future.

Storage: The place where products / materials are stored and kept, custody / safekeeping service and the fee paid for this service.

Summary Declaration: It is a document showing that the goods to be imported and exported have arrived at customs.

Supplier: The supplier of goods and services.

Supply Chain: The name given to the whole of activities such as organizations, people, technology, which includes the movements from the supplier to the customer and within this process. In this context, it is the chain that connects many companies.

Sustainable Warehouse: Areas that can serve for a long time by carrying out their activities in a sensitive manner to the environment and society.

Swap Body: It is the name of the containers that are too thin to be stacked on top of each other and cannot be lifted from the top by the stacker. They are made of very light materials to reduce initial purchasing costs and keep fuel costs to a minimum in the long term. Its measurements are in standard ISO container measurements in order to be loaded on other container-carrying vehicles. Thanks to the foldable legs, which are generally on four corners, it can change the vehicle it is carried without the need for any loading / unloading system.

THC (Terminal Handling Charges): It is the handling fee at the port.

The substances are listed below according to their classes;

Third Party Logistics (3PL): These are logistics companies that undertake the logistics activities (primarily transportation and storage) of their customers and are experts in their fields. By first party, the seller company is meant by the second party, the buyer company, and by the third party, the company that undertakes some services between the seller and the buyer companies.

Tonnage: The carrying capacity of a freight vehicle in tons.

Tool kit: A tool kit containing tools (hammer, screwdriver, etc.) for repairing a vehicle.

Traceability: The ability to obtain and report data on the path a product follows from production to consumption throughout the supply chain.

Trailer: A road transport vehicle for load carrying, which can be parked on its own wheels, towed by a towing vehicle and manufactured in accordance with the characteristics of the load it will carry.

Transfer center: Transaction centers where incoming loads / cargoes are loaded and those departing depending on the destination, loads are stored during the day in short time intervals and load / cargo transfer between vehicles.

Transfer: In this process, the loads delivered by one vehicle are unloaded and loaded into another vehicle to be dispatched in a short time without any special handling.

Transportation: The transfer of people and loads between certain points.

Truck Carnet (TIR Carnet): A customs transit document that provides transportation under a procedure from the customs office at the point of departure to the customs office at the destination. It is divided into varieties as 4, 6, 14 and 20 leaves according to the number of pages it contains.

Tugboat: A motorized marine vehicle that helps large ships to maneuver quickly and safely in port areas.

UBAK: It was put into effect on January 1, 1974. In 2006, UBAK was changed to the International Transport Forum (ITF). The UBAK document is a permit document used in transports between member countries, which is allocated at the beginning of each year to companies that meet certain conditions by the Transport, Maritime and Communication Bank within the quota granted to the member countries by the Secretariat, accompanied by a duly filled logbook.

Usable Addresses: Refers to the suitability and availability of the locations determined for different purposes (stocking, handling, vehicle loading / unloading, value added services) in logistics facilities for the relevant transaction.

Value Added: The value that a company adds to its inputs (the sum of labor, depreciation, profit, taxes and debts) / added or improved value, functionality or utility.

Vertical Conveyor System: A conveyor system used in cases where the communication between floors, intermediate floors or stations with height difference within the same floor is not long enough to be resolved with an inclined conveyor.

Vertical Storage System: A mechatronic system with an elevator system and trays inside each module. It provides storage by placing products or transport containers (baskets, parcels, etc.) on trays and transported vertically with the elevator system. It determines the height of the products placed on the tray and minimizes the distance between the trays by means of the sensors inside, and provides efficient storage in vertical direction.

Waiting Time: The time during which the load does not physically move.

Walk-through Shelf: It is the shelf that allows the stacking equipment to enter the shelf from the aisle, allows deep stacking of pallets and thus minimizes the area reserved as the corridor, where a small variety of goods are stored in high quantities, where rails are used instead of sleepers for placement. It provides an operation in accordance with the LIFO (last in first out) principle.

Warehouse (bonded warehouse): The type of warehouse where customs goods are kept under customs supervision and the necessary procedures are carried out to complete the corresponding foreign trade process.

Warehouse Management System: Records and reports the entire process (including external field management) from the acceptance of the products in the warehouse to their dispatch using computerized and automatic recognition technologies, and directs the employees by making decisions on address determination and allocation within the process with smart algorithms, It is the system that enables the tracking of resources and planning.

Warehouse: A closed or open security area where products are placed for a certain period of time, depending on the needs.

Warehouse: These are intermediate points that play a strategic role in the realization of a whole series of activities, from the raw material stage of the products to the production environment and then to the distribution to consumption centers.